The Greater Wrath (“Isoviha” in Finnish) is a term used to refer to the Russian invasion and occupation of Finland from 1714-1721; a part of the Great Northern War (1700-21).
During the period of occupation Finland was governed by military authority. Resistance movements cropped up in the form of partisan warfare, but in response Russian authorities forced Finnish peasants to pay heavy reparations to the occupying forces. The period is marked by plundering, looting, and forced deportation. Potentially tens of thousands of Finns were taken for slave labor in Russia, few of which returned. Most of Finland’s clergy and nobility fled to Sweden, leaving peasants to fend for themselves.
An estimated 60,000 Finns were killed or forced into slavery.
The occupation was finally ended with the Treaty of Nystad in 1721, which handed over Swedish Estonia, Livonia, and a portion of Southeastern Finland to Russia.
[Picture: Finnish painter Albert Edelfelt’s “Isoviha”.]